21st Century Bhagavad Gita

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Category: Chakras

The 5 Modulations of the Mind

If you have not read the Patanjali Yoga Sutras, then maybe we should all read it. In that, this is the first thing that is spoken about. It is about the five modulations of the mind.  It is very important.

The five modulations are: Pramana (proof). We want proof for everything. We want proof of love, of truth, of someone’s honesty, of God. We want to prove everything.

The second modulation is Viparyaya (incorrect conclusions or wrong understanding). Viparyaya means the mind making up its own universe, which is very different from what actually is in reality. In the Yoga Sutras, it is said, ‘Viparyayaha mithya jnaanam atad rupa pratishtham.’ (Yoga Sutras, Ch.1, V.8)

It means, that what you thought, was not what was actually happening in reality. It meant, you were having a wrong understanding of reality.

So Viparyaya means seeing the unreal as real, and the real as unreal. It means seeing that which is temporary, transient and perishable as permanent and imperishable. Sat and A-Sat. (The Absolute truth and Maya (fantasy)

It is like, sometimes others think something about you, but those people are gone, and that thought is gone as well, but you have held on to that thought in your mind and you are miserable. This is Viparyaya.

A simple example could be: you are going into someone’s house and they do not see you entering. There is a gust of wind, or maybe they see a lizard entering the house, so they shut the door, but you think that they have banged the door on your face.

It was simply a coincidence of your going towards the door and them banging the door shut. You thought they saw you coming because you saw them, and they shut the door. These are some simple examples of Viparyaya. You sit and think, ‘Others are thinking badly about me’. But in fact if you ask them, they will tell you, ‘I never thought about you. I was busy with my own work’. Where do people have the time to think about you?

The third is Vikalpa (fantasy or imagination). It again means the mind thinking or galloping on that which is not there at all.

The fourth is Nidra meaning sleep, and the fifth is Smriti (memory), meaning dwelling upon something in the memory, or thinking all the time about something that happened in the past.



Cosmic Nature; in general, the intelligent, creative vibratory power projected out of Spirit that both objectifies and becomes the triune manifestation (causal, astral, and physical) of the universe and the microcosm of man.Specifically designated: Maha-Prakriti is the primal Undifferentiated Creative Intelligence of God, Creative Mother Nature or Holy Ghost, that through Cosmic Vibration of Its own Self brings into manifestation all creation. Para-Prakriti (Pure Nature) and Apara-Prakriti (Impure Nature) correlate with the Christian terminologies of Holy Ghost and Satan—respectively, the creative power that expresses the immanence of God’s vibratory Presence in creation, and the dark power of cosmic delusion that obscures the Divine Omnipresence. Read the rest of this entry »

The spine and the nerve centers.

The Spinal Ascent

Lunar Feminine the Yin (left) Ida – ShushumnaPingala (right) the Yang Masculine Solar

Vajra Chitra (astral spine)

Brahmanadi (spine of the causal body)

Nadis are thought to carry a life force energy known as prana in Sanskrit, or chi in Chinese-based systems. In particular prana (active) is supposed to circulate inside Pingala, while apana (passive) is supposed to circulate inside Ida. Inside Sushumna is supposed to circulate kundalini when awakened. The Ida and Pingala nadis are often seen as referring to the two hemispheres of the brain. Pingala is the extroverted (Active), solar nadi, and corresponds to the right hand side of the body and the left hand side of the brain. Ida is the introverted, lunar nadi, and corresponds to the left hand side of the body and the right hand side of the brain. These nadis are also said to have an extrasensory function, playing a part in empathic and instinctive responses. The two nadis are believed to be stimulated through different Pranayama practices, including nadi shodhana, which involves alternate breathing through left and right nostrils, which would alternately stimulate respectively the left and right sides of the brain. The word nadi comes from the Sanskrit root nad meaning “channel”, “stream”, or “flow”. The rhythmical breathing and special breathing techniques are supposed to influence the flow of these nadis or energetic currents. According to this kind of interpretation (which is the Yoga interpretation) the breathing techniques will purify and develop these two energetic currents and will lead to breathing special exercises whose goal is to awake kundalini among seven Nadi Chakras in our body. Of the seven, four are in the trunk of the body, two in the head- and there is one in the neck. Chakra is the power center associated with the subtle body of man.

Ida, Pingala and Sushumna

Amongst these ducts or nadis, three are of the utmost importance: the Medullar Sushumna, which interpenetrates the cerebrospinal axis from the perineum to the cranium, and it is associated with both nostrils being open and free to the passage of air. The ‘lunar Serpentine Ida’ of the left side, of a pale color, negative polarity. It is associated with feminine attributes, the Yin element of Chinese philosophy, and an open left nostril; the solar Serpentine Pingala of the right side, red color, positive polarity. It is associated with masculine attributes, the Yang element of Chinese philosophy, and an open right nostril. Those are the main nadis, but in some tantric texts more than 72,000 nadis are cited. They all start from the central channel of the chakras to the periphery, where they gradually become thinner. The Nadi Sushumna, whose substance is the threefold Gunas, is in the middle. She is the form of Moon, Sun, and Fire even water also; Her body, a string of blooming Dhatura flowers, extends from the middle of the Kanda to the Head, and the Vajra inside Her extends, shining, from the Medhra to the Head.

Sushumna (alternatively known as Susumna) Nadi connects the base chakra to the crown chakra. It is very important in Yoga and Tantra in general. Alternative medicine also refers to Sushumna sometimes. In Raja Yoga or Yoga Asana and Pranayama the important state of Pratyahara begins. A person entering this state never complains of Dispersion of Mind. This is characterised by observing the movements/jerks in Sushumna, the central canal in the subtle body. The movements indicate the flow of Prana through the central canal and in the process, the sushumna makes the way for the ascent of Kundalini.

Pingala is associated with solar energy. The word pingala means “tawny” in Sanskrit. Pingala has a sunlike nature and male energy. Its temperature is heating and courses from the left testicle to the right nostril. It corresponds to the river Yamuna. The Ida and Pingala nadis are often seen as referring to the two hemispheres of the brain. Pingala is the extroverted, solar nadi, and corresponds to the left hand side of the brain. Ida is the introverted, lunar nadi, and refers to the right hand side of the brain.

Ida is associated with lunar energy sometime it is based on solar energy. The word ida means “comfort” in Sanskrit. Idā has a moonlike nature and female energy with a cooling effect. It courses from the right testicle to the left nostril and corresponds to the Ganges river. Ida nadi controls all the mental processes while Pingala nadi controls all the vital processes.

Sushumna Nadi 
This is the astral spine, the spine of the energy-body called Pranamaya kosha. It is a hollow tube running from Mooladhara chakra to Sahasrara chakra. Inside the physical spinal cord a hollow canal runs all along the length called canalis centralis. Sushumna nadi is situated inside this hollow canal. It originates at the mooladhara moves inside the spinal cord. The anterior branch goes to the Agnya chakra the eye-brow center and from there to the top of the head (hollow spot). The posterior branch passes from behind the head and also joins the top of the head (hollow spot). This hollow spot is Brahmas Cave from where the prana should leave the body at death for liberation.

A yogi aspirant generally has to work with the posterior branch of the Sushumna. The Sushumna nadi encloses within itself another nadi called Vajra nadi. Within this Vajra nadi is Chitra nadi. Vajra Nadi and Chitra nadi correspond to the two bodies called Manomaya kosha and Gyan Amaya kosha. Within Chitra nadi is the subtlest of all the nadis the Brahma nadi. This is the spine of the causal body or Anandamaya kosha. This causal body is made of Consciousness or thought vibrations in the form of ideas. This nadi has seven centers of consciousness the chakras of the causal body. All the chakras are located within this Brahma nadi. For all practical purposes we will take the chakras located within Sushumna because Brahma nadi is itself within the Sushumna.   

The Vital Airs

The vital Airs +organs+ tanmatras+ chakras +mahabhut

  1. Udanathyroidmetabolization-vishuddha or cervical chakraether– runs upward through the spinal channel, leads the selfless up the long ladder of evolution, and the selfish downwards.
  2. Pranaheart-crystallization- anahat dorsal chakraair- in the eyes, ears, mouth & nose.
  3. Samananavel-digestion or assimilation- manipura lumbar chakrafire– the equalizing force in the middle digests food and kindles the seven fires.
  4. Vyana- wind / speed-circulation-svadhishthanasacral chakra – water– distributor of energy, moves through vital currents, radiating from the heart, where the Self lives
  5. Apana– downward force, in the organs of sex and excretion rectum-elimination of toxins- muladhara or coccygeal chakraearth

The duties of the five Pranas are as follows: Udana carries the Soul upward when the body dies, Prana remains in the upper part of the body, and always moves upward;  the Samana stays in the first section of the torso, digesting and distributing the food substances; the Vyana resides in the heart, and from there moves all over the body, its duty being the circulation of the blood; the Apana resides in the lower part of the body, or abdomen, and always flows downward.


5 Koshas

Human beings have three bodies. God and soul reside in the causal body. Spirit (jiva), will, intellect, Kundalini (hidden coiled spiritual energy), 10 Pranas (vital breaths) out of which seven are subtle, reside in the spiritual body. The remaining three pranas, mind, senses and sense organs are part of the gross body. In these three bodies reside five Koshas (sheaths). Annamaya kosha is the food sheath of the gross body. Manomaya kosha is mind sheath, partly in gross body and partly in subtle body being consisting of extremely fine particles like ether. Pranamaya kosha is vital breath sheath partly in gross body and partly in subtle body. Jnanmaya kosha is the knowledge sheath in the causal body where soul resides and partly in the subtle body where spirit and intellect reside. If the soul provides the divine knowledge, the spirit and intellect provide spiritual knowledge. Lastly, Anandmaya kosha is the sheath relating to eternal bliss and entirely reside in the causal body.

To reach the stage of self-realisation, one has to cross each sheath to reach the last sheath. This can be done through food control by avoiding entry of toxins in the body through stale, spicy, extremely hot or cold food and moving the taste of food from tongue to mind. This is only possible by taking need based simple food.

After crossing annamayi kosha one has to cross manomaya kosha. In this case, the turbulent outward looking mind (etani) is to be controlled by inward looking mind (manas). By living in pollution free location, having noble thoughts and following the path of selfless action along with purification of vital breaths through pranayama (certain exercises for the purification of vital breaths), one crosses Pranamaya kosha. Thereafter by acquiring harmonized divine, spiritual and material knowledge the fourth kosha relating to knowledge sheath (gyanamaya) can be crossed. Finally, one reaches the fifth kosha (anandmaya) when self-realisation is attained and one can move towards moksha-stage of eternal bliss. In this stage, a person can communicate with his/her soul.

The Chakras in relation to the Pandavas.

The 5 Pandavas represent the 5 energy forces that can be activated by our 5 chakra centers in the body. These are Sahadev as the Mooladhar or Coccyx area, Nakul as Swadisthan, Arjun in Manipura or navel or Lumbar,Bhima as Anahat heart and Yudhishthira as Visuddha or throat centre.

There are 2 more chakras the agya chakra (power of intuition, third eye, pineal gland) and the Sahasrara which will be explained in a later detailed post.

Through the power of meditation these energy centres can be activated to provide immense benefit.

Chart of the Chakras